By Miracle Archibong

Technology in our world today has greatly improved our way of living. It constitutes 98% of everything we do, big or small. We can find technology in our homes such as television, fan, in our environments such as cars, airplanes and a lot more. Human beings aspire to improve the technology around them. Moreover, the invention of technology comes with advantages and disadvantages. In this essay, technology is fully explained for your understanding.

Definition and History of Technology

The word technology is coined from two Greek words techne, meaning “art’’ or “craft’’, and logos meaning “logic’’ or “reason’’. Technology can be defined as the art of scientific knowledge, skills, techniques created by human to produce tools, machines, products for our consumption.

The origin of technology date back to two million years ago, where a stone was discovered as the first technological invention. This period is also known as the palaeolithic period. Stones come from an early human campsite in the bottom layers of deposits in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Stones where mouled and sharpened by humans, with this discovery and the experience they developed to sharpen the stones, they used it to chop branches from trees, hunt for animals in the bush. They also use the flakes gotten from the stones as small knives for light-duty tasks. Hand axes were also used there some 500,000 years ago.
Moreover, there were some other technologies inventions in the palaeolithic times like fire, clothing and shelter.


Fire is an invention in the time of the palaeolithic period. The exact date that fire was discovered is not known, evidence was shown that burnt animal bones at the beginning of humankind suggest that the use of fire occurred before one milliampere. Human beings use fire, fueled with wood and charcoal to cook their food.

Clothing and shelter

Clothing and shelter are other inventions in the palaeolithic period. The exact date discovered was not known. Human beings build temporary wood huts and wore clothes gotten from fur and hides of hunted animals.

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However, during the Neolithic period (when human’s technological ascent began in earnest), inventions like metal tools, energy and transport, plumbing were in place.

Metal tools

During the period of Neolithic, human beings have improved immensely to have the ability of smelting and forge natural metals like gold, copper, silver and lead. Alloys like bronze and brass were also discovered.

Energy and transport

These are other inventions during the Neolithic period, where human beings were learning how to use other forms of energy. During this period, the sailing ship was known using wind power. The wheel was also invented.


According to archaeological, evidence was shown that primitive toilet using river water to flush away waste are over 500 years old. The first roman aqueduct (an artificial channel for transporting water) was built in 312 BCE.

Furthermore, during the medieval period (middle age) and modern period (period after the middle age till date) some inventions are also carried out. Inventions continued during these periods, resulting in the manufacture of silk, horse culler and horseshoes. Also, the use of simple machines like lever, screw and pulley were combined to form more complicated tools like windmills, clocks and wheelbarrow. Renaissance period has produced many inventions like the printing press, and technology became associated with science. In this period technology took an industrial revolution. Human beings use electricity to create inventions such as electric fan, the electric bulb etc. the harnessing of scientific advances and the discovery of new ideas later allowed for development in medicine, physics, chemistry and engineering. Telecommunications such as the telegraph, telephone, radio and television were invented. The airplane and automobile were also invented. In the 20th century, many inventions were made such as nuclear fission (it led to the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear power), the computer (using transistors and integrated circuits), internet, satellite etc.

Types of technology

They are many sector in the world today that use technology for efficiency and productivity, like

Communication technology

It is one of the vital types of technology known for communicating information, data from one place to another. An example of devices used are phone, internet, radio and television.

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Medical technology

It a type of technology that has assisted in improving and extending human life. Examples are drug, bandage and MRI machine.

Educational technology

It aims to assist students in learning ways of devising solutions to problems with the help of research, utilization of information, evaluation. Examples are book, calculator etc.

Agricultural technology

It provides machines for farming and other agricultural purposes like feeding livestock, land irrigation, soil tilling, packaging and sorting product. Machines use are tractor, plough and watering can etc.

Construction technology

It provides equipment and methods used to build advanced and basic building structures. Computer Softwares (like AutoCAD, solid works) are used to design and create a digitalized version of the building. Examples of materials used are roofs, blocks and beams.

Advantages of Technology

Technology has played a vital role in the economy, from the television watched at home to the internet use for browsing. Technology as impact much to our lives. Here are some advantages or impact technology has done for us.

Good communication means

It can be seen that technology has helped us to communicate with one another irrespective of the location, using means like social media, instant messaging and a lot more.

Good learning skill

Softwares and electronic gadgets like the calculator, phone and laptop help students with their education.

It helps in accessing information

Internet as been a blessing of disguise to society. Search engines like google, social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn) are used to access information fast.

It saves time

Advancement of technology produces machines that help in working fast. Before clearing of bushese were done by cutlass but with modern technology, the tractor is used and it saves time.

It provides transportation

During the prehistoric period, human beings travel long distances with their leg but with modern technology, cars, airplanes and trains are used to remove such stress from humans.

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It helps to save lives

Technology helps to save lives by providing drugs and machines used for treating sick people.

Disadvantages of technology

There is a saying that whatever has good side must also have a bad side, technology also falls in such groups. Here are some disadvantages of technology

It can lead to unemployment

Machines are been used to carry out work at a constant pace for several hours without stopping. This has caused many people to lose their job.

It causes pollution

Industries like oil and gas pollute the air, soil, water and cause noise. Pollution also causes diseases to human beings, animals and plants.


Drugs like cocaine, tramadol are produced for anaesthetics, but they are been use illegally.

Internet influence

Social media platforms have impacted negatively to the society such as the spread of fake news, fraud and showing of pornography.

It leads to loss of lives

People lost their lives through accidents caused by cars, airplanes and ships. Collapsed buildings also lead to loss of lives.

It can be used in oppressing humans

Technology such as guns is used for arm robbery. Internet is another medium used to make fun of people using memes.

The world at large cannot live without technology, because it constitutes all of what makes lives. Since the innovation of technology, communication, information, productivity, efficiency and mobility have help our lives. The world is looking forward to more advance technology in the future.

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